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Cultural criticism. The author describes a crisis of criticism - in modern, western societies criticism being conceived as a child of Enlightenment, and with modifications in Konersmann further opines that criticism is neither endangered nor threatened to disappear, but that it has already successfully changed and found new positions and forms of expression: it has become cultural criticism.

The book includes a lenghty chapter on J. Keywords : mediality , messenger model , transference and media , mediation , philosophy of culture , perception , media and perception , transmission. Medium, messenger, transference. A brief metaphysics of mediality. It becomes clear that the elementary task of the media is to make something absent perceivable. Das Fremde. Konstruktionen und Dekonstruktionen eines Spuks.

Ethnologie Keywords : alterity , otherness , discourse analysis , multiculturalism , globalization. Constructions and deconstructions of a haunting. Alterity has become a focal topic in everyday life and sciences in the face of globalization. The papers deal with otherness in everyday life, politics, economy, advertising, etc. Kulturwissenschaftliche Religionsstudien 8. Keywords : gender and religion , religion and gender , feminism , theological gender studies , Biblical women , feminist theology , religious education , Islam.

Daughters of god. Studies on the relationship of culture, religion, and gender. Zur philosophi-schen Anthropologie zwischen Stammesgeschichte und Kulturdeutung. Keywords : humanitarianism research , philosophical anthropology , sociobiology , creativity , emotion , cognition. Humanitarianism research as an interdisciplinary anthropology. On philosophical anthropology between tribal history and the interpretation of culture. The author presents a philosophical anthropology with a proximity to both practice and scholarship. In doing so he includes biological, systems-theoretical and social-scientific material, and deals with normative philosophical approaches such as responsibility, human rights questions, freedom, and freedom of will, and the search for meaning in life.

The focus is on man as a creative, achieving, responsible, and normative being. Feste in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Aspekte, Beispiele, Perspektiven. Keywords : feasts , festivals , cultures of festivals , nation and festivals. Festivals in history and present. Aspects, examples, perspectives. Finally, the results of this quest for a definition and modern formation of feasting is applied to an analysis of the notorious 'crisis of feasting' in the present.

Poststrukturalistische Sozialwissenschaften. Poststructuralist social sciences. The authors observe that poststructuralist thinking pertains to practically all social science areas, whether it is society, power, religion, art They ask how central social-scientific concepts and research are being transformed by adopting poststructural perspectives. Theorising Sexuality. Keywords : sexuality , gender , race , power , feminism. This article proposes to treat sexuality as a cultural object, analysing the sexual meanings produced by specific discourses on sexuality and gender power.

More precisely, it focuses on the ways in which sexual liberation theorists have theorised sexuality as a site of liberation from capitalist power relations and it explores feminist critiques of sexual liberation discourse, drawing out the ways in which feminist debates around sexuality have recast sexuality as a crucial site of gender power.

Myths of the creation of the world, of humans, and the endangerment of existence. He sees a similarity between creation myths, with gods as agents, and human creative agency and its evolutionary history from simple tools to nuclear plants. Stratifikation durch Evaluation: Mechanismen der Konstruktion von Statushierarchien in der Forschung. Keywords : status hierarchies , hierarchy , measuring universities , evaluation in academia , peer reviews. The investigation starts with a case study on the evaluation of economics and management science at Bavarian universities in The case study is carried out in two steps.

The results of the study are then interpreted theoretically and explained with regard to causes, accompanying features, and consequences. The major finding of the study is that centrally organized comparative evaluation of departments contributes to the construction of self-reproductive status hierarchies. Three mechanisms each of constructing and of reproducing status hierarchies are disclosed in the analysis. Keywords : war , transnational wars , fourth generation wars , violence and states , Westphalian system , guerilla , sovereignty of states , new wars.

The observation, central to political theory and the history of ideas, that conceptual and political orders do not only correspond with, but virtually condition each other, becomes apparent in dramatic ways when looking at war and peace: Without a proper concept of war, a peace regime cannot be built. This explains the intensity of recent debates on the "New Wars" theorem. Crucial for European history of war in modern times is the dissociation of interstate war and civil war, of war and guerrilla, as has been codified in the Peace of Westphalia.

The so-called "Westphalian system" of nation-state sovereignty, including the related form of international law, focused on maintaining this dissociation. It guaranteed not only the symmetry of wars, but also the stability of peace regimes of a non-imperial kind. This, however, appears to be unfeasible since the end of the 20th century. Intimbeziehungen aus soziologischer Perspektive. Keywords : love , sociology of love , theories of love. Declarations of love. Intimate relations from a sociological perspective. In doing so, the notion of love is analyzed, too, then Western concepts of love through time, in present times, and trends pointing to the future.

Unternehmen im globalen Stress: Zum kulturellen Wandel sozialer Beziehungen. Keywords : corporations , change in corporations , business and change , globalization and economy. Corporations in global stress: On the cultural change of social relations. Since the 's globalization is on everybody's mind and discussed in all media.

This article throws light on the cultural change taking place in these discussions as far as social relationships in corporations and the public sphere are concerned. Globalization serves as a policy of external attribution of inherent necessity. While the citizen is led into new unequal relations by the increasing global exchange of goods and services, his institutional ways to express discontent still rely on inadequate national channels. Keywords : language barrier , qualified interpreting , professional interpreting service , Migrant Friendly Hospital Project.

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Language barriers are a major difficulty and impede successful communication between patients and hospital staff. Nine European hospitals, a scientific institute, and international experts cooperated in the "Migrant Friendly Hospital", a project to implement and evaluate professional interpreting services. The paper illustrates an example of good practice and evaluation results from a staff survey conducted before and after intervention. Especially the good practice model shows that quality assured interpreting services need a concrete organisational link-up.

The article closes with recommendations for a concerted action within the hospital quality management. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Stuttgart: Metzler Verlag Keywords : culture theory , lexicon culture theory , literary and culture theory. Metzler Lexicon Literary and culture theory.

Approaches, persons, basic notions. This is a lexicon combining the areas of literary and cultural studies. Keywords : decoupling thesis , Beck, U. The individualization thesis that was developed by Ulrich Beck in the s has inspired quite a lot of research in the social sciences, which, however, has not led to conclusive results. This article focusses on the so called decoupling thesis, a core theorem in this discussion. It maintains that despite unchanging objective structures of social inequality, their relevance for social action, social identity and social perception has declined since the s.

In this paper an alternative method of testing the decoupling thesis was used in an explorative fashion. In an experiment respondents were asked to classify wedding portraits from the s, s, and s by social class. The results of this experiment do not support the decoupling thesis since there is no linear decrease over time in the of correct classifications of the persons depicted. Das Konzept der Generation. Eine Wissenschafts- und Kulturgeschichte. Keywords : generation , age groups , genealogy , transgenerationality. The concept of the generation. A scientific and cultural history. This monograph presents a comprehensive scholarly and cultural history of the generation concept - in its biological, political, educational, historiographic, and literary dimensions: starting from the antique generation of the notion to current demographic and biomedical debates.

This includes genealogical thought in premodernity, the physiology of the generation before and after the 17th century, the generation as a future model around , genius and generativity between aesthetic theory and genetics, the family in literature of the 19th century, modernization of the concepts, the generation gap in the 20th century, transgenerationality concepts of transference. Keywords : poverty , wealth , capitalism , Ewald, F. The paper deals with the regularly and correctly assumed but theoretically rather seldom explicated reciprocal implication of the market and the welfare state.

It is argued that the widely called for re-privatisation of social security and the conversion of conventional welfare into workfare policies may eventually lead to the cancellation of the social contract of the welfare state. The author maintains that, should such reforms be thoroughly realized, the welfare state as an institution of political inclusion would become an agency that only replicates and embodies the principle of economic equivalence, instead of harbouring the ideal of gift exchange too and thereby cushioning the hardships of a capitalist labour market.

The first section of the paper recalls instrumental as well as caring aspects of the evolution of the welfare state. Secondly the concept of reciprocity and the moral foundations of the providential state will be specified. Section three tackles the economic, social, political, and cultural dimensions of the social security crisis. Fourthly superficially similar but morally diametrically opposed proposals to introducing an unconditional basic income will be censored. In general it is the aim of the paper to prove the analytical potential of ,the gift" and to normatively defend its spirit against a consummation of the competitive market.

Wetterzauberei und Schamanismus. B Ethnologie Keywords : weather witchcraft , shamanism , comparative religion , religion and magic , shamanism , rain magic , efficacy , rituals. Weather witchcraft and shamanism. In each case, examples are presented, compared, and analyzed according to categories such as nature spirits, rain sacrifices, rain stones, color symbolism, and behavioral rules.

The author asks whether there are commonalities or similarities in these examples, and whether the weather can be really influenced by the shamans. Results show many common features of the cases. The Anthropological Society of Vienna and the anthropological disciplines. Pusman documents and discusses the history of the society, founded in up to , which comprises and includes the disciplines of physical anthropology, ethnology, pre-history, and Folklore Studies.

For each of the periods monarchy, between the world wars, during National Socialism, after National Socialism behavior and processes in the four disciplines is described. Die Erfindung der flachen Erde. Keywords : Columbus, C. The invention of the flat earth. The Columbus myth and the construction of the transition between the epochs of the Middle Ages and Modernity. Reinhardt recounts the history, the process of the invention of the flat earth particularly in the United States - connected with the history of Christopher Columbus.

Keywords : sociology of religion , new religions , pilgrims , nuns , Muslimas , migrants , events , religious studies. Young pilgrims to the pope, emancipated Muslimas, travelling nuns: New actors in the sociology of religion. In its beginnings sociology of religion was practiced as a general theory of society.

Today it has to share its objects with other special sociologies, for example youth or migration research. This elucidates many of contemporary religious studies, which do not focus on the social meaning and interpretation of religion generally, but ask the questions in greater detail: 1 How juveniles, who are socialised in a mediated every life, practice religious community, 2 in which way muslim women with educational and social capital interpretate the qu'ran, 3 and what kind of cultural meanings are accentuated by members of transnational religious communities?

Drawing on selected studies the article reconstructs the current state of religious research in order to identify new fields and actors and reclaim the relevance of a religious-sociological perspective for the cultural analysis of society. Methoden kulturvergleichender Sozialforschung. An introduction. This textbook from a sociological perspective aims at a practice-oriented introduction, especially focusing on possibilities and limits of cultural-comparative survey research. The authors want to supply a sound basis for critically dealing with such studies, and to enable readers to conduct research themselves.

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They discuss aims and procedure of comparative studies what and how to measure, how to sample. Procedures of selection are discusses, developing questionnaires, assessing social contexts, and ways to analyze internal and external equivalence, etc. Keywords : Lacan, J. An attempt to apply a Lacan perspective to molecular genetics in the context of neoliberalism. This includes critical analyses of society, e. Keywords : privacy , public and privacy , public sphere , feminism , theory of democracy , democracy. The dynamics of privacy and public in modern societies.

While the public sphere is often discussed as a democratic ideal, or as a declining feature of late-modern societies privacy still is a residual category in political and theoretical debates, or is cherished as an uninterpreted realm of happiness. However, feminist debates show that the sphere of privacy needs to be integrated into the theoretical discussion as a central ingredient of social order and political processes.

The author presents a reflexive account of the debate in feminism and the theory of democracy, and she generates a notion of privacy aiming at the dynamic relationship of private worlds and temporary, associative public spheres. Keywords : care , social citizenship , autonomy , interdependence , gender , autonomy and family , women and labor market , individualization. In industrialized, capitalist welfare states, men could be de-familialized because they could also abandon their caring needs and obligations to women, who therefore remained bound to the family.

The focus on women, and precisely on the reasons why they remained bound to the family, has increasingly highlighted that not only incomplete individualisation was at issue, but the overall issue of care. There is a need to reformulate the concept of autonomy in order to include the relationships of interdependence that develop around care giving and care receiving along the life course and to incorporate care giving and care receiving both conceptually and in practice in the structure of social rights and social citizenship themselves. The author discusses how different countries are addressing the issue of care following women's increasing labour market participation and the ageing of the population, showing that there are contrasting trends both across and within countries.

Keywords : genital mutilation , clitoridectomy , violence against women. This is a brief account of the literature on genital mutilation, including pro and contra arguments regarding western activism, the work of NGOs, the human rights question, etc.

Keywords : diaspora , Tibetan diaspora , orientalism , marriage , partnership , sexuality , body , coping in diaspora. The Tibetan Diaspora: Past and future research. First, demographic aspects and the focus of research of studies on the Tibetan Diaspora are presented in relation to other, general studies of diasporas. Then, the discourse on the Tibet question by, and about Tibetans and the present situation of information are briefly portrayed.

This includes the influence of the western, or, "Orientalist" discourse. Following this research methods regarding the Tibetan Diaspora are described as in Capper, Kohut as well as major complexes of Tibetan identity in the Diaspora are described: health, partnership, marriage and sexuality, the body, and generally coping strategies and the notion of "religio-political" identity. Finally, changed identities in the Diaspora are dealt with, and future research is addressed. Diskurskoalitionen in den Massenmedien. Keywords : public sphere , mass media , media and discourse , discourse analysis , content analysis , biotechnology , correspondence analysis , Foucault, M.

Discourse coalitions in mass media. Both approaches emphasize relevant and complementary aspects of societal communication, but so far, there has been no attempt to combine the two. This is the aim of this article: First, it is shown that both approaches are based on similar assumptions. Second, the concept of "discourse, coalitions" is employed in order to bridge discourse analyses and the WZB model.

Third, I propose to reconstruct discourse coalitions statistically using multiple correspondence analysis. Fourth, two examples will be considered in order to demonstrate discourse coalitions in a concrete mass media debate. In the cases of human genome research and stem cell research, three discourse coalitions can be shown, each having a different weight and therefore, a different discursive "power" in the coverage.

Ideen und Konzepte. Keywords : religion , anthropology of religion , textbooks. Introduction to the anthropology of religion. Ideas and concepts. This textbook for students presents the foundations and central topics of the anthropology of religion: Religion as part of culture and society always being interwoven with questions of identity, social justice, and equal opportunities.

The book is systematized in the following way: The object of the anthropological study of religion, history of the anthropology of religion, importance of fieldwork - and then topical areas: creation of the world theories of myth, cosmos, morality etc. Der Potlatch der Natur. Keywords : potlatch , Bataille, G. The potlatch of nature. Elements of a political ecology in Georges Bataille.

Nationale und globale Ungleichheit. Keywords : global inequality , national inequality , globalization , national state , world classes , middle class , order and state , transnationalism , inequality. National and global inequality. The impact of globalization on the structure of social inequality is controversially discussed in actual debates.

The national focused research is challenged by globalists. The article concentrates on the problem of order and shows how this is solved by the national structures of social inequality. In the next step the reasons for and against the national solution are presented. Finally the possibility of transnational constituting structures of social inequality is examined. How probable is the structuration of global inequality if basic elements of order are missing on this level?

Symbole und Werte. Kulturwissenschaften 4. Keywords : symbols , values , magical thinking , spatiality , punitive practice , moral communication , honorary office , Corporate Social Responsibility , youth. Symbols and values. This collection of articles deals with symbols and values in concrete cases as well as in general, contemplating functions, effects, etc. Jahrhundert [The poison murderer Gesche Gottfried. Changing punitive practice in the early 19th century].

Abgrenzungen mit empirischen und praktischen Absichten [Moral communication. Demarcations with empirical and practical intent]. Ein Beitrag zum Thema Erwerbsarbeit [Value change and historical heritage. A contribution to gainful employment]. On the notion of work in bourgeois society]. Corporate Social Responsibility and Multi-stakeholder initiatives in discourse]. Die Naturalisierung der Ungleichheit. Keywords : inequality , peripheral societies , equality , exclusion , Taylor, C. The naturalization of inequality. A new paradigm for understanding peripheral societies. Souza develops a theoretical alternative to dominant paradigms of modernization theory and thus contributes to the globalization discourse.

He constructs a theory of society taking the many institutional variations of one core structure of modernity as a starting point not the result , attempting a synthesis between Charles Taylor moral hermeneutics and Pierre Bourdieu varieties of capital which form a matrix of possible combinations of different principles. Souza exemplifies this in the case of Brazil, taking e.

Founders of the anthropology of work. German social scientists of the 19th and early 20th centuries and the first ethnographers. Forschung und Wissenschaft Keywords : work , anthropology of work , Marx, K. Work is vital for most individuals and for every society. Yet it leads a Cinderella-like existence within social anthropology. Comparing industrial and non-industrial work, they were interested in the character of work as performance, play or ethical deed, and as rational action. Due to a lack of ethnographic studies, the empirical basis of their analysis remained weak.

Having close links to the older social scientists they introduced new perspectives based on fieldwork in Africa and Melanesia. Following an introduction of several literary and philosophical forerunners such as Novalis, Schlegel, Herder, Kant, Hegel Mentale Kultur und Immigration. Semiotik der Kultur 9. Keywords : humanitarianism , values , cultural values , immigration and values , semiotics. Mental culture and immigration. Immigration countries between humani-tarian claims and cultural self-sacrifice.

Due to its humanitarian values migrants are allowed to practice other values which disregard European ones. Using a cultural-semiotic approach the book focuses on current aspects of migration which are socially relevant. In doing so the development of the modern idea of culture and ways of appropriating a culture like understanding alterity, language, migration theory, integration, rights are portrayed, followed by a number of concrete cases such as enforced marriage, genital mutilation, boat people, special rules for Muslims in schools, etc.

Ethnologie und Kunst. Zwei integrierte Partner oder strittige Pole? Baessler-Archiv Keywords : art history and anthropology , anthropology and art history , indigenous art. Anthropology and the arts. Two integrated partners, or debatable oppo-sition? This is a plea for closer cooperation of art historians and anthropologists. The history of awareness of the fact that other cultures than Europeans alone recognise and produce art, is chronologically presented. The handling and evaluation of indigenous art is discussed.

The history of dealing with the so called non-western art in Europe goes back to the late 19th century but with lesser consequences as public institutions were concerned. Discrepancy of the European evaluation of works of art and indigenous categories of art is discussed. Moritz Wagner und sein Werk. Kurzbiographie eines wegweisenden deutschen Wissenschaftlers. Keywords : Wagner, M. Moritz Wagner and his work. A brief biography of a pathbreaking German scholar. Moritz Wagner , a contemporary of Charles Darwin, is one of the least known German explorers, biologists and geographers of the , century despite his great scientific achievements.

Through his own field experience he made valuable scholarly contributions to biology, geography and ethnography.

Both of these laws, he was convinced, supported the principles of evolution as postulated by Darwin. But Darwin and his adherents did not seize on his theories, nor support them. So Wagner and his scientific work on biology fell into oblivion. It was nearly a century before Ernst Mayr revived Wagner's theory of speciation by isolation and made today's biologists familiar with it. Besides his biological studies Wagner influenced the entire concept of biogeography as strongly as Friedrich Ratzel.

Moritz Wagner was rooted in the tradition of the German classical school of geography in the first half of the 19th century. It is Wagner's work which marks the commencement of a new era of German geography. The present article is a first contribution towards a review of the life and scientific work of Moritz Wagner and a survey of his extensive travels and his journalistic, partly politically motivated, activities. Forschung - Lehre - Praxis. Wissenschaftsforum Kulinaristik 1.

Keywords : culinaristics , food , drink , cooking. Research - Teaching - Practice. Culinaristics is a multidisciplinary contribution across areas and fields in the cultural and life sciences. The contributions in the book put visions, research, and initiatives generated under the auspices of the German Academy of Culinaristics into practice. The authors are scholars and representatives of gastronomy, the food industry, the media, professions, and cultural institutes. They cover topics ranging from the cultural rootedness of food and drinking behavior, cooking, and hospitality, to ritual, gastronomic, gender specific, cultural political, philosophical, economic, theological, semiotic, and communicative aspects of the connections of culture, communication, and cuisine.

Eating and drinking as individual activities or social institutions pattern human life across the globe and in all cultural and intercultural settings. Food and drink fulfill basic nutritional needs, but they also contribute to communication, shape the rhythm of the day and the year and constitute fundamental notions of hospitality. Both in theory and practice, culinary systems are constituting components of cultural systems. The contributions in this volume describe essential aspects of culinaristics.

They seek to circumscribe this multidimensional and multidisciplinary field of cultural research which naturally also includes components from the natural sciences and the fields of gastronomical knowledge Keywords : climate , democracy , Scandinavia , change in Turkey. The individual issues deal with the following topics:. The Nordic countries]. Ho climate changes us]. Von neuen und alten Demokratien [We have the choice: Of new and old democracies]. The Turks on the point of emerging]. Handel, Gender und Sozialbeziehungen. Rurale Geschlechterforschung 9. Keywords : gender relations , markets and gender , trade and transformations , transformations and trade , gender and trade , women and trade.

Local markets in Mozambique. Trade, gender, and social relations.

Anthropology of religion 1 - basic outline

Ahrens presents an overview of markets and social relations of traders in precolonial and colonial times, and includes results of her empirical research in the province of Manica Mozambique. In this time of complex transformations - from war to peace, from planned economy, from socialism to democracy - everywhere small marketplaces emerge which become, for men and women in distinct ways, a location of societal and economic reintegration.

So Ahrens introduces the theoretical background, development of markets, transformation processes in Mozambique, markets in the region of Manica, the social condition of traers, and typical patterns of action in petty trade. Generations in Africa. Connections and conflicts. Keywords : generations , age , intergenerational conflict , conflict and age , Khwe , migrants , umcwasho , Aids , religiosity , sexuality , Valentine's Day , teenage mothers , kinship. Though long neglected in anthropological research, the connections and conflicts between generations are at the heart of social processes.

In this book, sixteen studies examine relations between generations of kin and between historical and political generations Together they reinvigorate and expand the old anthropological interest in generation, showing how necessary it is to understanding contemporary African societies. Memories and intergenerational conflicts in South Africa. Notes from Kwahu-Tafo, Ghana. Freud Was Not a Kafa. Keywords : kalacca , phallus , orientalism , cosmic energies. A significant ceremonial object in southern Ethiopia is a headdress called kalacca.

Its association with a phallus by Westerners has become an unquestioned topos. Makers of kalacca and those entitled to wear them emphasize its sacred meaning, identifying it as a socioreligious mediator able to bundle positive and negative cosmic and spiritual energies. Considered within the broader framework, the kalacca belongs to those substances which are capable of creating and representing relations with the supernatural. Doctors ask questions, and Patients respond or not : communication in a South-African clinic for antiretroviral therapy ART.

This paper investigates some of the communicative features of discourses mediated by bilingual employees in the context of Antiretroviral Therapy ART in South Africa. Bilingual employees play an important role in this enterprise because health workers and patients often do not belong to the same linguistic and ethnic group and sometimes even do not share a Lingua Franca.

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Therefore, these employees act as cultural and linguistic mediators, also in during doctor-patient consultations. Although their participation is often indispensable, their institutional status is low. Elite im Sudan - Bedeutung, Einfluss und Verantwortung. Keywords : elites , nationbuilding , political elites , reform of elites , democracy. Elite in Sudan - Meaning, influence, and responsibility. In this book the process of Sudanese state- and nationbuilding and the role of political elites is analyzed.

The topic was chosen because of long, persisting political, economic, and social unrest which lead to the question what kind of solution is imaginable, and how elites might support change. What is the part of elites in the wars and instability? How have elites been recruited and changed during Sudanese state and nationbuilding?

The author presents ways to solve present challenges which include the contribution of Sudanese elites and commitment by the international community. The conclusion discusses nation-building and a compromise regarding the elites, related contexts, and proposes a number of reform measures. Wodaabe Dancers on Multiple Stages.

Palgrave Historical Studies in Witchcraft and Magic

Sociologus Keywords : tribal culture , world culture , youth culture. Wodaabe dancers , Fulbe-Woodabe , dance , beauty cult , self-affirmation , nomads , herders. The term "youth culture" is generally linked with ideas of renewal, breaking with traditional norms and values, opposition and rebellion. This conception stems from the fact that, in western societies, "youth" is first and foremost associated with adolescence and puberty conflicts.

In the case of the Nigerien Fulbe-Wodaabe however youth sukanaaku is not regarded in the same way as a phase of personal development but is rather identified with specific competencies and social responsibilities. Here, youth constitutes the most important realm of cultural self-manifestation and affirmation. The central institution of this youth culture are the male dances which are performed in the context of the important seasonal lineage meetings. In recent times, these dances have become a medium of exchange with the outer world. The "beauty cult" of the Wodaabe attracts photographers, camera teams and tourists and it also represents an important factor for migration to urban centres and to Europe.

As adorned dancers and photographic subject young Wodaabe migrants experience themselves as part of a "would culture". The article focuses on the link between the forms of cultural self-affirmation which are maintained inside this group of nomadic cattle herders and phenomena of eclectic cultural consumption apostrophized as "world culture". Keywords : pastoralism , common pool resource management , land tenure , spatial mobility , Pokot , resource management.

The management of communal pastures and wells has become a standard topic of research on pastoral societies and on the theory of common pool resource management. The paper sets out to discuss the history of scientific engagement with pastoral land tenure: after a focus on overstocking and degradation caused by irrational accumulating behaviour, the "tragedy of the commons" became an important and politically influential narrative paving the way for the dismantling of pastoral commons.

In recent years non-equilibrium qualities of savannah environments and well adapted local knowledge on the grazing vegetation were highlighted. The paper then sketches the management of common pool resources by the pastoral Pokot of north-western Kenya over a century. It is argued that institutions of common pool resource management changed profoundly according to specific political and ecological ramifications.

Such changes astonishingly have not been the result of incremental change but have been rather abrupt. Major perturbations of the social ecological system violence, drought contributed to sudden shifts in the tenure regime. Afrika Spectrum Keywords : rites of passage , passage rites , communitas , liminality , Turner, V. Rites of passage overseas? Since Mozambican students are being sent to Cuba for secondary, higher or technical education.

IVtne powers seem only. Schnepel The ltems" or the o-mikuji as Klau a SI.

Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World

II d imaginations ofl ife after death considered inauspicious or " polluting" for Shinto. I of the freedom of religious practice through the new Constitution since see ersons try to ehclt. I r way as I cIaJm. Some of the more o - which some scholars have further refined through the Iabel of "new new rel ig- grounded practices do. More recent scholarship,. After the lay performers hok. The Ieader of the lay group supervising the choreography less on ritual actwn tha. The performative actionwas taken as hav ing the desired effect. Rules This is often.

The one liturgical part attended by most villagers - also charged with silent tension - was the lighting of the " new" first tire under the cauldron by the would encompass both the casual.. Many engagement matsuri. This te hamlets. What could be observed "o tl. But here as weil , almost no villagers were ceding the opening of the feslive period or rather framing the whole Festival in place and time: the rituals at a waterfall in the forest, on the tields and one to ap- However, the degree oF ritual sacredness oF.

This is a dance with high leaps and many body contortions, " imitating" ers. Tlle many different pro ps suc h as f:ans rattles e presence o dlvme. The same heron, depicted on the overcoat ofthe performer. This positionino of th perFomlmg speclallsts and lay persan- or appellations- villagers abusing the dnnnming style, or the group of"lay priests" s o e commumty to b b d'l. As transgres- High Points oj Communal Enjoyment sions such as obscene gestures, jokes, curses or almost naked exuberance are certai nly not permitted in traditional Shinto rituals or are aesthetically d isguised to The main high points of communal particiPa 1i When it seemed at I the appearance of the mountain god y0 k..

These where the mountain god appears in h" h e 11gh pornts. While the mountain ancrn. The dances of the v illagers under the guidance of the boys , and departino often b tl. The members of the lay priest group and a Few dancers, plus faster and faster unti l a hea. I d "matsuri-madness" has reached a climax. Only ments, a stgn that the so-cal e d d the mass disentangle and a pause ts performancegenressuch as Noh, w hile preserving or re-iterating o lder forms o f the when the dnun tonesdown the spee.

The other "The lmpestuous One", identified with the Wind, the kamikaze of later religious blisters on hts hands, tl ts taken. This is repeated kegare not to be mis-translated as "sins". Uzume now took a bucket, turned it up- n up tuming and fal. She then toreher clothes and d isplayed her private parts. This incited lhe 1 as does sometu11es e t ". An equally wild performance ts o - assembled and worried dei ties into burst of loud laughter, upon which, her curiosity destroyed one or the other camera o.

Last but not! Now, I shall. Burkhard Schnepel t' d mances apan we ma ll h. This applies even more pronouncedly. However, I would like to specify this by pointing m1me IC replay of the First and th ti , 1e atter being a bivalence of the whole perform ere ore kpresumed to be of inferior kind. Such am- to the notion of performers having to cope with the risks of a double contingency: for once, they can never be sure about the "resonance" of their own performing h b. Yet, this reso- artlcle from "The Sens t' f u. I w 11 e t Je attentlon to the "'. Theories ofthe Petformative E. These mo ,.

But even then, the onlookers. A while ago, if ritual "commitment" is alllh t. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

Worrying trends in African politics

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